While the focus on understanding factors that contribute to adult malignancy has centered on adult exposures, there is evidence that in utero alterations in energy metabolism resulting in difference in fetal growth contribute to a wide variety of diseases including cancer. Both high and low birth weights in mice and humans have been linked to adulthood cancers such as breast, colorectal, and hematologic malignancies.
GLUT9 or Slc2a9 is a novel facilitative glucose transporter that is expressed as two isoforms differing only in their amino terminus, Slc2a9a and Slc2a9b.
The endometrium is a steroid hormone dependent tissue that responds to cyclical changes in estrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle.
The negative impact of obesity on reproduction and pregnancy outcome is well known, but the mechanisms and time course responsible for developmental failure remain unclear.